Student Outcomes. Lesson Notes. Classwork. Discussion (10 minutes)


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1 NYS COMMON CORE MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM Lesson 5 8 Student Outcomes Students know the definition of a number raised to a negative exponent. Students simplify and write equivalent expressions that contain negative exponents. Lesson Notes We are now ready to extend the existing laws of exponents to include all integers. As with previous lessons, have students work through a concrete example, such as those in the first Discussion, before giving the mathematical rationale. Note that in this lesson the symbols used to represent the exponents change from m and n to a and b. This change is made to clearly highlight that we are now working with all integer exponents, not just positive integers or whole numbers as in the previous lessons. In line with previous implementation suggestions, it is important that students are shown the symbolic arguments in this lesson, but less important for students to reproduce them on their own. Students should learn to fluently and accurately apply the laws of exponents as in Exercises 5 0,, and 2. Use discretion to omit other exercises. Classwork Discussion (0 minutes) This lesson, and the next, refers to several of the equations used in the previous lessons. It may be helpful if students have some way of referencing these equations quickly (e.g., a poster in the classroom or handout). For convenience, an equation reference sheet has been provided on page 6. Let x and y be positive numbers throughout this lesson. Recall that we have the following three identities (6) (8). For all whole numbers m and n: x m x n = x m+n (6) (x m ) n = x mn (7) (xy) n = x n y n (8) Make clear that we want (6) (8) to remain true even when m and n are integers. Before we can say that, we have to first decide what something like 3 5 should mean. Allow time for the class to discuss the question, What should 3 5 mean? As in Lesson 4, where we introduced the concept of the zeroth power of a number, the overriding idea here is that the negative power of a number should be defined in a way to ensure that (6) (8) continue to hold when m and n are integers and not just whole numbers. Students will likely say that it should mean 3 5. Tell students that if that is what it meant, that is what we would write. 52 This work is derived from Eureka Math and licensed by Great Minds. 205 Great Minds. eurekamath.org This file derived from G8MTE
2 NYS COMMON CORE MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM Lesson 5 8 MP.6 When they get stuck, ask students this question, Using equation (6), what should equal? Students should respond that they want to believe that equation (6) is still correct even when m and n are integers, and therefore, they should have = 3 5+( 5) = 3 0 =. What does this say about the value 3 5? The value 3 5 must be a fraction because =, specifically the reciprocal of 3 5. Then, would it not be reasonable to define 3 n, in general, as 3 n? Definition: For any nonzero number x and for any positive integer n, we define x n as x n. Note that this definition of negative exponents says x is just the reciprocal,, of x. In x particular, x would make no sense if x = 0. This explains why we must restrict x to being nonzero at this juncture. The definition has the following consequence: For a nonzero x, x b = xb for all integers b. (9) Scaffolding: Ask students, If x is a number, then what value of x would make the following true: 3 5 x =? Scaffolding: As an alternative to providing the consequence of the definition, ask advanced learners to consider what would happen if we removed the restriction that n is a positive integer. Allow them time to reach the conclusion shown in equation (9). Note that (9) contains more information than the definition of negative exponent. For example, it implies that, with b = 3 in (9), 5 3 = 5 3. Proof of (9): There are three possibilities for b: b > 0, b = 0, and b < 0. If the b in (9) is positive, then (9) is just the definition of x b, and there is nothing to prove. If b = 0, then both sides of (9) are seen to be equal to and are, therefore, equal to each other. Again, (9) is correct. Finally, in general, let b be negative. Then b = n for some positive integer n. The left side of (9) is x b = x ( n). The right side of (9) is equal to x n = x n = = xn x n where we have made use of invert and multiply to simplify the complex fraction. Hence, the left side of (9) is again equal to the right side. The proof of (9) is complete. Definition: For any nonzero number x, and for any positive integer n, we define x n as x n. Note that this definition of negative exponents says x is just the reciprocal,, of x. x As a consequence of the definition, for a nonnegative x and all integers b, we get x b = x b. 53 This work is derived from Eureka Math and licensed by Great Minds. 205 Great Minds. eurekamath.org This file derived from G8MTE
3 NYS COMMON CORE MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM Lesson 5 8 Allow time to discuss why we need to understand negative exponents. Answer: As we have indicated in Lesson 4, the basic impetus for the consideration of negative (and, in fact, arbitrary) exponents is the fascination with identities () (3) (Lesson 4), which are valid only for positive integer exponents. Such nice looking identities should be valid for all exponents. These identities are the starting point for the consideration of all other exponents beyond the positive integers. Even without knowing this aspect of identities () (3), one can see the benefit of having negative exponents by looking at the complete expanded form of a decimal. For example, the complete expanded form of is (3 0 2 ) + (2 0 ) + (8 0 0 ) + (5 0 ) + (4 0 2 ) + (0 0 3 ) + (3 0 4 ). By writing the place value of the decimal digits in negative powers of 0, one gets a sense of the naturalness of the complete expanded form as the sum of whole number multiples of descending powers of 0. Exercises 0 (0 minutes) Students complete Exercise independently or in pairs. Provide the correct solution. Then have students complete Exercises 2 0 independently. Exercise Verify the general statement x b = xb for x = 3 and b = 5. If b were a positive integer, then we have what the definition states. However, b is a negative integer, specifically b = 5, so the general statement in this case reads 3 ( 5) = 3 5. The right side of this equation is 3 = 3 5 = 5 = Since the left side is also 3 5, both sides are equal. 3 ( 5) = = Exercise 2 What is the value of (3 0 2 )? (3 0 2 ) = = 3 = Exercise 3 What is the value of (3 0 5 )? (3 0 5 ) = = 3 = Exercise 4 Write the complete expanded form of the decimal in exponential notation = (4 0 0 ) + (7 0 ) + (2 0 2 ) + (8 0 3 ) 54 This work is derived from Eureka Math and licensed by Great Minds. 205 Great Minds. eurekamath.org This file derived from G8MTE
4 NYS COMMON CORE MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM Lesson 5 8 For Exercises 5 0, write an equivalent expression, in exponential notation, to the one given, and simplify as much as possible. Exercise = 5 3 Exercise = = Exercise 6 = Exercise 8 Let x be a nonzero number. x 3 = x 3 Exercise 9 Let x be a nonzero number. = x 9 x9 Exercise 0 Let x, y be two nonzero numbers. xy 4 = x y 4 = x y 4 Discussion (5 minutes) We now state our main objective: For any nonzero numbers x and y and for all integers a and b, x a x b = x a+b (0) (x b ) a = x ab () (xy) a = x a y a (2) We accept that for nonzero numbers x and y and all integers a and b, x a x b = x a+b (x b ) a = x ab (xy) a = x a y a. We claim x a xb = xa b for all integers a, b. ( x y )a = xa y a for any integer a. Identities (0) (2) are called the laws of exponents for integer exponents. They clearly generalize (6) (8). Consider mentioning that (0) (2) are valid even when a and b are rational numbers. (Make sure they know rational numbers refer to positive and negative fractions.) The fact that they are true also for all real numbers can only be proved in college. The laws of exponents will be proved in the next lesson. For now, we want to use them effectively. 55 This work is derived from Eureka Math and licensed by Great Minds. 205 Great Minds. eurekamath.org This file derived from G8MTE
5 NYS COMMON CORE MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM Lesson 5 8 MP.2 In the process, we will get a glimpse of why they are worth learning. We will show that knowing (0) (2) means also knowing (4) and (5) automatically. Thus, it is enough to know only three facts, (0) (2), rather than five facts, (0) (2) and (4) and (5). Incidentally, the preceding sentence demonstrates why it is essential to learn how to use symbols because if (0) (2) were stated in terms of explicit numbers, the preceding sentence would not even make sense. We reiterate the following: The discussion below assumes the validity of (0) (2) for the time being. We claim x a x b = xa b for all integers a, b. (3) ( x y )a = xa ya for any integer a. (4) Note that identity (3) says much more than (4): Here, a and b can be integers, rather than positive integers and, moreover, there is no requirement that a > b. Similarly, unlike (5), the a in (4) is an integer rather than just a positive integer. Tell students that the need for formulas about complex fractions will be obvious in subsequent lessons and will not be consistently pointed out. Ask students to explain why these must be considered complex fractions. Exercises and 2 (4 minutes) Students complete Exercises and 2 independently or in pairs in preparation of the proof of (3) in general. Exercise 9 2 = Exercise = = = Proof of (3): x a x b = xa x b By the product formula for complex fractions = x a x b By x b = xb (9) = x a+( b) By x a x b = x a+b (0) = x a b Exercises 3 and 4 (8 minutes) Students complete Exercise 3 in preparation for the proof of (4). Check before continuing to the general proof of (4). Exercise 3 If we let b = in (), a be any integer, and y be any nonzero number, what do we get? (y ) a = y a 56 This work is derived from Eureka Math and licensed by Great Minds. 205 Great Minds. eurekamath.org This file derived from G8MTE
6 NYS COMMON CORE MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM Lesson 5 8 Exercise 4 Show directly that ( 7 5 ) 4 = ( 7 5 ) 4 = (7 5 ) 4 By the product formula = (7 5 ) 4 By definition = 7 4 (5 ) 4 By (xy) a = x a y a (2) = By (x b ) a = x ab () = By x b = xb (9) = By product formula Proof of (4): ( x y )a = (x y )a By the product formula for complex fractions = (xy ) a By definition = x a (y ) a By (xy) a = x a y a (2) = x a y a By (x b ) a = x ab (), also see Exercise 3 = x a y a By x b = xb (9) = xa y a Students complete Exercise 4 independently. Provide the solution when they are finished. Closing (3 minutes) Summarize, or have students summarize, the lesson. By assuming (0) (2) were true for integer exponents, we see that (4) and (5) would also be true. (0) (2) are worth remembering because they are so useful and allow us to limit what we need to memorize. Exit Ticket (5 minutes) 57 This work is derived from Eureka Math and licensed by Great Minds. 205 Great Minds. eurekamath.org This file derived from G8MTE
7 NYS COMMON CORE MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM Lesson 5 8 Name Date Exit Ticket Write each expression in a simpler form that is equivalent to the given expression = 2. Let f be a nonzero number. f 4 = = 4. Let a, b be numbers (b 0). ab = 5. Let g be a nonzero number. g = 58 This work is derived from Eureka Math and licensed by Great Minds. 205 Great Minds. eurekamath.org This file derived from G8MTE
8 NYS COMMON CORE MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM Lesson 5 8 Exit Ticket Sample Solutions Write each expression in a simpler form that is equivalent to the given expression = Let f be a nonzero number. f 4 = f = = Let a, b be numbers (b 0). ab = a b = a b 5. Let g be a nonzero number. g = g Problem Set Sample Solutions. Compute: = 3 3 = 27 Compute: = 5 2 = 25 Compute for a nonzero number, a: a m a n a l a n a m a l a 0 = a 0 = 2. Without using (0), show directly that (7. 6 ) 8 = (7. 6 ) 8 = ( 7.6 ) 8 = = By definition By (x y )n = xn yn (5) = By definition 3. Without using (0), show (prove) that for any whole number n and any nonzero number y, (y ) n = y n. (y ) n = ( y ) n By definition = n y n By (x y )n = xn yn (5) = y n = y n By definition 59 This work is derived from Eureka Math and licensed by Great Minds. 205 Great Minds. eurekamath.org This file derived from G8MTE
9 NYS COMMON CORE MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM Lesson Without using (3), show directly that = = = = By the product formula for complex fractions By definition By the product formula for complex fractions = By xa x b = x a+b (0) = = By definition 60 This work is derived from Eureka Math and licensed by Great Minds. 205 Great Minds. eurekamath.org This file derived from G8MTE
10 NYS COMMON CORE MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM Lesson 5 8 Equation Reference Sheet For any numbers x, y [x 0 in (4) and y 0 in (5)] and any positive integers m, n, the following holds: x m x n = x m+n () (x m ) n = x mn (2) (xy) n = x n y n (3) x m x n = xm n (4) ( x y ) n For any numbers x, y and for all whole numbers m, n, the following holds: For any nonzero number x and all integers b, the following holds: = xn (5) yn x m x n = x m+n (6) (x m ) n = x mn (7) (xy) n = x n y n (8) x b = x b (9) For any numbers x, y and all integers a, b, the following holds: x a x b = x a+b (0) (x b ) a = x ab () (xy) a = x a y a (2) x a x b = xa b x 0 (3) ( x y )a = xa ya x, y 0 (4) 6 This work is derived from Eureka Math and licensed by Great Minds. 205 Great Minds. eurekamath.org This file derived from G8MTE
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